1) Tropic of cancer (23 ½ north latitude ) 10) Mikal range 2) 82 ½ east longitude 11) Thar desert 3) Indira point ( pigmolina point 12) Konkan coast 4) Aravali mountains 13) Malbar coast 5) Mt. Abu (Mt good shikar) 14) Coramandal coast 6) Western mountains 15) Utkal coast 7) Neelgiris 16) Chirapungi/Mausimram 8) Vindhya mountains 17) Ganganagar 9) Satpura range 18) Alahabad
SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHER’S CLUB, CHITRADURGA
10th Standard – Social Science Question Bank
Based on Blue Print 2008-09
(FOR SLOW LEARNING STUDENTS)
ADVENT OF THE EUROPEANS TO INDIA.
1. Name the important imports and exports of ancient India.
• The important imports were Houses, wines, coral and mercury.
• The important exports were cotton textiles, silk, pearls, diamonds, sandalwood and spices like pepper, cardamom, Cloves and cinnamon.
2. What were the two important consequences of capture of Constantinople?
• It closed the land route between the East and the West which made the European countries necessary to explore new sea routes to India [ as arabs controlled old sea routes] and also the trade with India was more profitable to Europeans.
• It led to the Renaissance. It expanded the knowledge of geography, maping technic and navigation.
3. Name the colonies of Portuguese, Dutch, English and French in India?
• Portuguese: Goa, Diu and Daman in Gujarat. Selsette and Bassein near Bombay in Maharashtra. San Thome near Madras. Hugly (Hoogly) in Bengal.
Dutch .Machatipatnam .Pulicat, Surat, Cochin.Basewrur near Kundapur.
English Ahmedabad.Agra.Broach.Calcutta.Dacca.Kasim Bazaar. Bombay.
4. What were the impacts of Advent of Portuguese in India?
1.It increased the trade contact with east and west. 2. Increase the demand for Indian goods in European markets.3. America origin crafts like tobacco, potato, onion, Chilies, Maize, cashew nut etc. were introduced in India by Portuguese . That was the radical change in Indian Agriculture.4.European architecture was introduced to India in the forms of church and building.
5. Who was Duplex and what was his ambition?
1.Dupleix was a talented and ambitious 2. He was the first French Governor who wanted establish French Empire in India and hence he entered into the India politics.
6. What were the causes for I Carnatic war?
1.Austrian succession war began in 1740 in Europe. 2.It Special to India also as there was a competition between English and French to establish colony in India
7. What were the results of II Carnatic War?.
The results of II Carnatic war were.
• English made Mohammad Ali, The nawab of Arcot and remained powerful in Carnatic but
• French failed to establish their influence in Carnatic.
8. What were the wrong decisions taken by the French?
• French planned to Seige Madras Count de laly, the French Governor summoned Bussy who was a French commander at Hyderabad to facilitate his siege to Madras.
Because the English army led by Sir Eyer Coote defeated Bussy at Wandiwash near Pondicherry in 1760.
9. What were the causes of Battle of Plassey?
• Siraj Ud Daulah tried to check the misuse of dartaks.
• He ordered to surrender Krishna Ballabh who settle at Fort William but English refused.
• English started to fortify their factory at Kolkatta and Fort William without the permission of Nawab .
10. What were the results of Battle of Plassey?
1.Siraj –Ud- Daulah was killed. 2. British made Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal 3. In turn British got Zamindaris right or collecting of revenue from 24 Paragana regions. 4.British got a firm fooling in Bengal
11. What was dual Government? Who introduced it?
Dual Government is a type of Government introduced in Bengal which gave British the right to collect land revenue and Administrative and judicial power were given to the Nawab Dual Government was introduce by the Government of Bengal Robert Clive.
12. What were the discoveries of Europeanse at the time of Renaissance?
• Marineris compass , Astrolobe & Mapping technique
13. Why did British dethrone Mir Kasim?
1. He refused to remain puppet in the hands of British 2.He asserted his legal right as Nawab and 3.He tried to check the misuse of Dastaks as it was a great loss for his treasure.
MYSORE STATE AND THE BRITISH
1. Mention the title of chikkadevaraja and his political achievements?
“Karnataka chiakravrthi” and “Navakoti Narayana”.
Political achievement of him were
• He conquered Tumakuru, Hoskote, parts of Salem district & Banavara, Vastare and Chikkamagalore from keladi, ruler.
• He defaulted the combined army of keladi Nayakas, Sultan of golkanda & shivaji’s son Sambaji.
• He maintained friendship with Aurangazeb and got Bangalore from Mugul on leize. In turn he agreed to keep a contingent of army for Mugual Services.
2. How was Hydarali became famous?
• When Dalavays were not able to pay salary to the soldiers, they revolted against the Dalavays, Hydarali paid salary to them and got the support of soldiers .
• He participated Karnatic war and learnt the war techniques of French and English.
• He repulsed Marathas in 1758, Who come to collect Chautayi (tax) in Srirangapatna
3. Mention the terms of the treaty of Srirangapatna?
• He had to surrender half of his territory to the enemies, Which was shared by the allies
• Tippu had to pay heavy war indemnity
• He also Surrender his two sons of as hostage to the English as had no money.
4. Mention the terms of the Treaty of Mangalore .
• Tippu retain the coastal regains of Mangalore and Malabar
• It also stressed that they should not join hands with their respective enemies
5. What were the causes and results of IV Anglo – Mysore war?
The defeat and the humiliation at the hands of the English in III Anglo – Mysore was the main causes. Tippu wanted to take revenge against British
• He fortified his capital and strengthened the fort and negotiated with French
• He sent his Ambassador to Afghanistan and sultan of Turkey
• French gave training to Tippu’s army. The result were
1. Tippu was died in bottle
2. Mysore was shared between Nizam and English
3. Remaining parts handed over to Krishnaraja Wodeyar III.
6. What were the achievements of Kantirava Narasaraja Wodeyar
• He expelled Ramadullah Khan of Bijapur, who laid siege to Srirangapatna
• He conquered Satayamangala Bettadapura and Arakalqud near Hassan
• He issued Gold, Coin, called “kanthirava panams”.
• He constructed Bangaradoddi canal, to give importance to the Agriculture
7. Who were very famous among Dalavays and Why?
• Nanjarajayya, Devarajayy
• They played prominent role in expanding Mysore kingdom and they also involved in Carnatic wars to secure Tiruchirapalli.
8. Mention the terms of the treaty of Madras
The terms in eluded in the treaty of Madras were.
• They agreed to return the territories they had captured from each other
• English promised to assist Hyder Ali if he was attacked by his enemies
The Establishment of the English Rule in India
1. Mention the result of I- Anglo – Maratha war
• The Marathas were forced to sign the Treaty of Salbai in 1782 A D
• Madava Rao II was recognized as the Peshwa and Raghoba was pensioned off
• Later Baji Rao II became the peshwa
• English increased their power in Maharastra
2. What were the causes for II Anglo Martha War?
• After the death of Nana, Phadanavis , Holkar of Indor and sindhya of Gwalior compited to get control over peshwa Baji Rao
• Baji Rao II accepted subsidiary Alliance this angered Holkar and sindhias
• Hence Holkar and sindhia declared war against English
3. What were the results of III Anglo Martha war?
• Baji Rao II was given an annual pension of Rs.8 lakhs & was sent to Brithore near Kanpur
• Peshwa’s territory merged with Bombay Presidency
• The discendent of Chatrapathi Sahu at Satara Pratap Sinha was granted the small area in Satara
• Maratha leader signed subsidiary Alliance one by one
• The Maratha rule come to an End.
4. Why do we call Ranjit sigh, The Lion of Punjab or famous ruler of the Sikhs?
Ranjit Sigh was the famous ruler of Sikhs,
At the age of 12 he became the chief of sukachahia of the Sikhs.
• He maintained friendly relationship with British by entering into Amrutsar Treaty.
• He unified all the Sikhs Chiefs
• He was very strong and courageous and hence renowned as Loin of Punjab
5. Why did British take over the administration of Mysore from Krishna Wodeyar III?
• In 1830 Zaamindari of Nagar revolted against the Maharaja and refused to pay tax this revolt was suppressed by the Maharaja
• But they began to trouble the administration individually, hence the British took over the administration state
6. Why do we call Krishna Rao Wodeyar IV the Maker of Modern Mysore
• During his rule Mysore made great progress 2. He constructed Marikanive irrigation project 3.opened Kolar gold field mines. 4.Street lamp were also provided to Bangalore in 1905 by him 5.Many diwans notable achievement under him
7. What were the contribution of Sir.M.Visveswaraya?
Sir.M.Visveswaraya is remembered by the people for his developmental works
• He started iron work factory at Bhadravathi.
• Government Soap factory, Sandal oil Factory and Mysore Bank was also started by him
• He established Mysore university, the Chamarajendra Technological Institute at Mysore and Engineering College at Bangalore
• Agriculture college at Hebbel were also stated during his period
8. How do you say the Krishnaraja Wodeyar was the lover of Education?
1.He abolished the fees at the Government primary school at first time 2.He also encouraged for the establishment of college and universities. 3. Opened Agriculture College at Hebbel.
9. Who introduced subsidiary alliance and Why?
1.Governor general Wellesley. 2. To expand the British empire in India & to again control over the native ruler.
10. What were the conditions of subsidiary alliance?
• The native rulers who accept their policy were not expected to engage themselves in wars or to enter into treaties with other states.
• To accept English contingent and pay subsidiary for the maintenance of this contingents.
• English resident was kept at the court of native rulers to keep control over the internal affairs of the native rulers.
11. What were the causes for the II Anglo-Sikh war OR Why did the ruler of Muttan revolt?
1.When the English got control over Punjab they did not rule over Punjab and asked Dulip Singh to rule and kept a section of their army in Punjab and asked Dulip Singh to regulate their army this made Sikh rulers unhappy. 2.Sikh rulers united together and revolted against British.
Chapter-4 THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE:
1. How was the expansion policy of British caused the first war of Indian Independence? [Political Cause].
• General Dalhousie introduced ‘Doctrine of Lapse’. Accordingly he annexed Satara, Jansi, Jaipur, Sambalpur and Udaipur who had no natural heir.
• Nanasaheb the adapted son of Bajirao II was not paid pension.
• Mughal emperor and Nawab of awadh and many others were thrown out of their power so lakhs of solders become unemployed and revolted against British.
2. How was the colonial policy of British caused 1857 revolt [Economic causes].
1.colonial policy ruined Indian industries so lakhs of people became unemployed .2.England imposed heavy tariffs on Indian goods in England. This further ruined the Indian industries and stopped the export Indian goods.
3. Why did the Indian sepoys revolt against British in 1857 or how do you say that the condition of Indian sepoys was pathetic?
1.They were paid eight times lower than the British soldiers salary.2. Promotions were reserved only for whites.
3.Indian soldiers were forced to cross the oceans during those days Crossing Ocean was a sin and they were outcaste.
4. What were the causes for the failures of 1857 revolt?
• Lack of leadership for the uprising.
• Sepoys indulged in looting and decoits and this resulted in loosing the faith of common people.
• The Indian sepoys did not have modern weapons but the British had.
• The English used telegraphic network to communicate the message and get the help. But the Indian did not know anything about it.
• Lack of proper organization among the mutineers
• The English had a common goal to protect their kingdom but Indians did not have any goal which is accepting by all.
5. What are the effects of 1857 revolt?
• The rule of East India Company was ended. The British Government took the administration of India in its own hands.
• The secretary of States for India was appointed to look after the administration
• The British with draw the policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’
• In 1858 queen Victoria declared to provide stable government to India and to safe guard the rights of people. This declaration is known as ‘The Manga-Charta of the Indian People’
• The queen also promised not to interfere in the religious matter of Indians.
• British realized that it was impossible to rule India without getting the confidence of Indians
6. Why did the Hindu and Muslim Orthodox angered against British?
Abolition of sati system, encourage of widow re-marriage and other social reforms were also misunderstood by the orthox. They thought that they are introducing their own culture in the place of Indian culture.
They also misunderstood by the introduction of telegraphs, railways etc. they thought that they were the signs of modernization.
7. What were the administrative causes of 1857 revolt?
The administrative causes of 1857 revolt are: 1.British introduced rule of law. Accordingly all are equal before the law. So rich Zamindar, Talukdars lost their status, position and were angered. 2.New legal system introduced by British became very difficult and costly to get justice. 3.The law was not applicable to Europeans.
4. The laws were not understood by common people 5.English replaced the Persian language in court.
CHAPTER –5 IMPACT OF THE BRITISH RULE IN INDIA
1. How did uniform system of administration introduced by British cause peace and stability in India?
1) `British introduced uniform system of administration all over India. That helped to establish uniform legal system. All Indians became equal irrespective of their religion, caste, sex, race etc.
2) The efficient police also helped to create peace and internal stability.
3) The princely state had variety of separate laws. It helped British to regulate those laws.
2. How do you say that Ryoghwari System was the best system of revenue collection?
Ryothwari system was the best system of revenue collection because of the following reasons:
• Land revenue was fixed on the basis of fertility, measurement and irrigation facility and was periodically revised.
• The ownership of the land remained with the peasants.
• During the time of draught, floods, feminine peasants could appeal to the government for concession.
3. How do you say that Zaamindari System was a worst system?
• Zamindars highly exploited the peasants; they collected more revenue than fixed.
• Peasants lost their ownership land and became slaves to Zamindars
• Revenue was collected even when their was natural phenomenon’s like floods, draught, famine etc.,
4) What were the effects of introduction of English Education in India?
Number of schools and colleges were started that created educated middle class, created cities.
Western Education brought the spirit of democracy and liberalism etc.
It also caused Cultural Revolution and national movements.
English served as a link language. Many languages were influenced by English and well developed.
5) How was the development of press strengthened the national movement?
1.They started exposing of administrative methods of English.2.Used as the weapons during the national movements.
3.They created national consciousness and awareness among, the people and increased nationality.
6) How was the development of transport strengthened the national movement in India?
1.The Indians began to travel in large scales throughout India. 2.This led to the development of sense of unity among the Indians. 3.Thus increased the national consciousness among the people.
7) How was the Industrial revolution took place in England effected on Indian Produce?
1.It made England an industrialist country. 2.Then needed lot of raw materials for their factories. 3.It made India a supplier of raw materials and market for their finished goods. 4.The Indian industries were ruined.
5.People lost their jobs and became poor.
CHAPTER :- 7 SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENT.
1) What were the factors which influenced over the Socio-Religious reform movement (Renaissance) in 19th century?
The factors that influenced are:1.British rule brought peace and security. It provided time to self intersection among the educated Indians.
2.English education brought western rationalism logic and reasoning, people began to think.
3Western concept like Democracy, liberty, Equality and nationalism awakened the Indian. They began to fight against superstitious beliefs.
4.The growth of press spread the ideas of educated Indians.
5.Many educated Indians formed their organization and challenged against superstisitious beliefs.
2) What were the outcome of Socio-religious reform movement of india
It was a period of rejuvenation of Indian life.
It prepared the society to fight against superstitions, inequality, untouchabality, gender discrimination.
Indian culture and Vedanta saw a revival.
The liberalism of the wert and the spiritual heritage of the East made of people realize the need to develop national feelings and achieve independence.
3) Who founded Sathyashodhak Samaj? What were its principles? Mention its achievements.
Jathiba Phule at Pune in 1873.
It fought against child marriage and exploitation of widows and untouchabality.
It opposed sysdam which shudras and Atishudras were exposed.
It believed that education alone could end exploitation.
It worked for the uplift of the conditions of mill workers (Poor).
Advocated universalaisation of education.
He fought against social inequalities in Hindu Society.
4) Mention the aims of Brahma Samaj/Prarthana Samaj and Arya Samaj?
Brahma Samaj: - It was started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Aims: It believed that western education and modern science is very much necessary to modernize India.
It fought against Sati System, exploitation, child marriage and polygamy, against idol worship.
It worked for the gender equality and widow re-marriage.
It attached the orthodox and fought against Sati System.
Prarthana Samaj: - It was founded by Dr. Atmaram, Panduranga, in 1867 at Bombay.
Aims: - Fought against caste system, child marriage and untouchability.
Encouraged intercaste marriage and widow re-marriage.
It fought against idol worship and polygamy.
It propagated that every religion has truth in it.
It worked for the upliftment of women.
It opened number of orphanages, national schools and widow homes.
Arya Samaj: - It was founded by Dayananda Saraswathi in 1875.
Aims: - It tried to reform Hindu society on the basis of Vedic thoughts.
He fought against Sati system, caste system and untouchabality and stressed girls’ education.
It started Dayananda Anglo Vernacular schools and colleges in North India.
The society awakene3d the Nationality.
5) What were the Social reformations works taken by Dayananda Saraswathi?
He started Arya Samaj and tried to reform Hindu Society on the basis of Vedic thoughts.
He fought against Sati System, Child marriage, untouchabality.
He started Dayananda Anglo Vernacular Schools and College in North India
He awakened the Nationality among the people.
He wrote Satyartha Prakash to spread his thoughts.
6) Explain the achievements of Ramakrishna Mission?
It asked the people to work for humanity and to give importance for prayer and yoga.
It also asked to serve the poor and sick.
It opened many schools, Orphanages, Colleges and Hospitals.
The mission worked at the time of famine and floods to serve the refugees.
The mission provided shelter to people of various religion and country.
THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT
Three and four marks questions:-
1) Who was the founder of Indian National Congress? What were its aims?
A.O.Hume, AIMS:- 1.To create national consciousness among the Indians. 2.Placing demands of the people and urge for their fulfillment. 3. To create public opinion in favour of national issues.
2) What were the demands of the Moderates?
AIMS/DEMANDS:- 1. They aimed at securing representation of Indians in higher administrative posts. 2.They urged for the expansion of the legislature with more elected members. 3. They agitated for the development of Indian agriculture and industries by imposing import duties on foreign goods.
4. They insisted on holding the Civil Service examination, simultaneously in India and England.
3) What is ‘Drain Theory’? Who introduced it? How did it cause for the flow of wealth?
1.The theory which explained that the British rule alone was responsible for the poverty in India.
By Dadabhai Naoroji.2.The resource of India were transferred to England:
In the form of more imports and less exports. 2. Profits earned on the British capital
3. The transfer of assets and the Pensions of the British officials.
4) Who was Bala Gangadhar Tilak? How did he propagate nationalist ideas?
Bala Gangadhar Tilak was one the Extremists.
1. He announced that “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”.
2. He said that the British to go out of the country, struggle was inevitable to thrown.
3. Started newspapers “Kesari and Maratha”.
4. Organized Ganesha and Shivaji festival. Thus awakened the national feelings.
5) Give a brief account of Non-cooperation.
1.Non-cooperation was launched by Gandhiji in 1921.2.The leaders of Khilafat movement (Shaukat Ali and Mohammed Ali) joined in it and campaigned for Hindu Muslim unity.3.Many students came out of the colleges and joined in the movement. 4.Many advocates gave up their practice.5. Many patriots were started National Institutions. 6.The Non-co-operation movement was withdrawn because of the violence that took place at Chauri Choura (1922).
6) Give a brief an account of “Civil disobedience movement”.
It was started after the declaration of complete independence by congress.
Gandhiji placed eleven demands before the Viceroy which included the abolition of Salt tax. The Viceroy paid no attention to these demands. So Gandhiji started Civil disobedience Movement.
Gandhiji conducted a long march from Sabharamathi Ashram to Dandi.
He produced a handful of salt on March 12th 1930 and distributed it to the people.
7. Give a brief an account off “Quit India Movement”.
The British government sent the Cripps mission (1942) to negotiate Indian Support for the second world war
It proposed the granting of “Domain Status” to India. But congress rejected it congaed started the quit India Movement on August 8th, 1942 at Bombay.
1.Gandhiji called upon the India’s to “ do or Die”.2.Police stations Government officer were set on fire.
3.Post and revenue offices, railways lines bridges were damaged.4.Liquor shops were attacked,
5.Jails were filled with freedom fighters.
8. Who formed I.N.A.? What were its achievements?
Subhash Chandra Bose formed I.N.A.
• He believed that only non –violence and negations will not secure freedom.
• He wanted to raise an army and launch a war against the British
• During II world war the British kept him under house arrest. But he escaped to Germany and got the sappot hitller and mussolin then reached Japan
• He organized I.N.A in Japan with the help of Bosbihari bose and launched war against British.
• He hoisted the tricolor flag in the Andaman British and Nichobar islands
• It entered the Indian sub-Continent and occupied 10.000 square Miles of Manipur territory
“Captain Laxmi” was the leader of Women’s wing of the army
• Japan was defeated in 1945 when he was traveling to Manchuria to prepare plan. He died in an air crash .
9. What was the reason for the partition of Indian?
• In 1940 the Muslim league at its Lahore session demanded a “Separate nation for the Muslim”
• August offer and Cripps Mission’s proposal were rejected by the congress but the Muslim league decided to Support the British
• The “Quit India” resolution was opened by Jinnah and he urged the Muslim not to participate in it.
• Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and proposed for undivided India with a Single legislature but Jinna rejected it and he called for “direct Action Day” On august parliament passed the India independence act In July 16.1947 India become free on the 15th of August 1947
THE FREEDDOM MOVEMENT IN KARNATAKA
2 Marks Questions:-
1. Describe the revolt of Kittur against the British ?
• Shivalinga Rudra Sarja, adopted son and died immediately
• The English tried to annex according to doctrine of lapse this small province
• Rani Chennamma fought valiantly against the English died (1929)
2. Write briefly about Surpur uprising
• Venkatappa Nayaka the ruler of Surpur and revolted against-British refused to pay the subsidy
• The British army laid siege into the Surpur fort in 1858
• He shot himself refusing to accept British dominance.
3. Write on Shivapura Satyagraha (1938).
• Mysore state congress organized id conference at Shivapura near Maddur in 1938
• There was ban of hoisting the tricolor T.Siddalingaih hoisted the flag and was arrested
• The people decided to hoist the flag daily at the same spot
• The flag was hoisted at Vidhurshwata fair (Julian Walla Bhag in Karnataka) in Kolar (1938) district. Thirty people were killed.
4. Describe the Quit India Movement at Isuru.
• In 1942, the people of Iruru participated in the Quit India Movement by peacefully Organizing processions
• They checked the entry of the Government officer into the Village which was declared “Free”
• Two officers were Killed when they tried to enter the Village
• Five persons from Iruru were hanged for this act.
5. How did people launch No-tax campaign in Uttara Kannada District?
The people of Uttara Kannada District refused to pay the land revenue. Their household goods and cattle were confiscated for non-payment of taxes. Women satyagrahis resorted to fast in front of cattle house f the British bidders.
6. How was no tax campaign launched in Sirasi ?
• Trees from reserve forest were cut and broke the law
• Draw their cattle to graze in the forest without paying the toll
• Today tree were out
7. What were the causes for Mysore cholo movement?
• Even after the independent Mysore state neither got responsible government nor hoisted the national flag.
• Even though the maharaja signed the instrument foreseen on 9th Aug 1947 to join Indian union but organized by Dewan Arcot Ramaswamy Raja did not announce anything.
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
1. Who achiveded the merging of princely state with Indian union?
Sardar Vallabai Patel. He is called the “Iron Man of India”
2. Which was the princely state which did not agree to join the Indian union?
2. Jammu and Kashmir
3. Who signed the “Tashkent agreement”? Why?
• By the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastry and Pakistan President Ayub Khan
• To settle Kashmir Issue in 1966
4. Who were Razakaras? Why did they recruit?
• It was a Para military force recruited by Razak of Hyderabad.
• To attack on nationalist organizations who were for the merger of the state.
5. When and how did Hyderabad merge to the India union?
* On 17th September 1948 through “Police Action”.
6. Which commission agreed for the creation of linguistic state? Who were their members?
* “Fazal Ali Commission” Members - * Fazal Ali * K.M. Panikhar * H.N. Kunzru
7. Which are three new states that have been created as new states in 2000?
1. Chattisgarh. 2. Uttarachall 3. Jharkhand.
8. Who has been termed as the Father of the Goan Liberation movement? Why?
“T.B.Cunha” He founded Goa Congress Committee in 1928 and started and agitation to against Portuguese administration.
9. When was Goa merged with Indian union? And how?
1961. When Portuguese took repressive measures on freedom fighters Govt of India started police action and annexed.
10. Where did the Government of India provide shelter to the refugees from Pakistan?
* In Orissa under Dandakaranya project.
Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
11. Who were the tribal people migrated from Bangladesh? Where did they take shelter?
* Chakmas Tribal “Tripura state” in India.
12. Where were the Tamil Speaking people from Srilanka settled in India?
* In Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
13. Where were the Tibetion refugees settled?
* The Tibetian refugees settled in The Mundgod taluk of Uttar Kannada and Bailkuppa of Mysore district in Karnataka.
CIVICS 1. Challenges facing India.
Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each:-[ 2 marks]
1. Mention the challenges faced India when it got Independence?
1. Illiteracy. 2. Communalism. 3. Regionalism. 4. Inequality between caste & sex. 5. Exploitation of children.
6. Corruption. 7. Block marketing. 8. Smuggling. 9. Profiteering. 10. Dowry 11. Poverty. 12. Population explosion.
2. What is communalism? What were its effects?
* Intolerance towards other religions is known as communalism.
It causes hastate, tension, enmity and divides the people on communal lines. Finally it checks the social and economic development of our nations.
3. What measures has been taken by the Government to curb communalism?
1. Our constitution declared India is a sovereign, democratic, socialist, republic.
2. Article 14 of our constitution provides equality before law.
3. Article 15 prohibits the discrimination on the basis of race, religion, caste, sex or places of birth.
4. Article 16 provides equal opportunity for all in Government jobs.
4. What were the features of tribes of India?
*Mostly they live in remote places .They are extremely poor and mostly illiterates.
*They depend on agriculture or other allied occupation.
5. What is smuggling? Which act has been passed to check smuggling?
* Importing goods from foreign countries without paying taxes or getting permission from the government is called smuggling. COFEPOSA act is passed to check smuggling.
6. What is dowry? When was dowry prohibition act passed?
* Presenting cash, Ornaments or other property to the grooms by the bride’s party is called dowry.
The dowry prohibition act was passed in 1961 and amended in 1986.
7. What is COFEPOSA? What is its importance?
* COFEPOSA is a conservation of foreign exchange and prevention of smuggling act.
This act has been passed by the government to check smuggling and to preserve foreign exchange.
8. What is corruption? Which action has been taken by the government to check corruption?
* Accepting money or presents to undertake any work by the officials is known as corruption. The government constituted Lokayukta and check corruption.
9. When was adult education Programme started? Why?
* In 1978 to provide education to adults.
Answer in ten lines: - (3 marks and 4 marks)
1. What is illiteracy? What measures has been taken by the government to remove illiteracy?
* Illiteracy is a state of a person who does not know reading and writing.
The measures are:-
• Directive principles of state policy of our constitution stressed the government to provide free & compulsory education for the stressed the promotion of educational interests of SC, ST & other weaker section of the society.
• 93rd amendment of our constitution made education a fundamental right.
• 42nd amendment of our constitution transferred education into concurrent list.
• All the state governments in India have made primary education free.
• Incentive Programme are undertaken to attract children to primary schools.
• The government of India announced the national policy on education in may 1986.
• In 1986 government introduced new education policy and operation Black board scheme.
• Introduced Sarvasiksha Abhiyan.
2. What measures has been taken by the government to achieve universalisation of primary education?
• To improve primary education in rural areas go government is providing infrastructure such as building water facilities.
• Strict measures are taken to see the children between 6 to 14 years are in the schools.
• To attract the children into the schools numbers of programmers are introduced such as text books uniforms, mid-day meals etc to avoid dropouts.
• Importance is given to pre-primary education by providing facilities.
• Importance is given to girl’s education.
• Improved and attractive method of teaching has been introduced to attract the students in learning and research is encouraging in teaching learning.
• Alternative system of education is introduced to the children who are not in a position to attend regular school.
• Educational programmes like ‘kelikal’ and Shikshara samvada broadcasting and telecasting.
3) What is regionalism? What measures has been taken by the government to check regionalism?
Intolerance towards other region or state and exclusive attachment and loyalty to their own state or region is called regionalism.
The measures are:-
• Our constitution provides autonomy to states to fulfill the needs and aspirations of the people.
• The Central Government co-ordinates the activities of the states to achieve unity.
• A commission was constituted to regulate the relation between state and center.
• Special committees or boards are constituted to achieve balanced growth of all regions. Ex.:- Nanjundappa Commission, Bayaludeme Development Board
4) What measures has been taken by the government to uplift the conditions of SC and ST?
a) To safeguard the interest of SC and ST government made number of provisions.
b) Some seats are reserved for SC and ST in Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Local Self governments.
c) Special mobile courts are opened to safeguard the rights of SC and ST and for quick disposal of cases of untouchability.
d) Some seats are reserved for SC and STs in government jobs and in higher education.
e) In 1978, a commission was appointed to supervise the matters relating to the child rights of SC and ST.
f) Free legal aids are provided.
g) In the fields of education: - Free Scholarships, special scholarships, hostel facilities, free stationeries are provided.
h) Special employment exchanges are opened for disable SC and STs.
i) Minister for Human Resource Development providing educational training programmes.
j) Co-operating marketing development federation of India helping in marketing of Tribal produce.
5) What measures has been taken by the government to improve the conditions of women?
Child marriage is prohibited by law.
Polygamy is prohibited by law.
Widow remarriage is encouraged.
Sati system is abolished by law.
Equal share is provided or women in their ancestors property.
A commission is constituted for the welfare of women and children.
Dowry prohibition act is passed and enforced.
Training and employment plans are adopted to strengthen women.
Certain percentage seats are reserved for women in local self government and government jobs.
Social welfare department introduced. Two years basic educational facilities for women.
Some special projects such as Balika Sammuddhi yojanna, Rastriya Mahila Vimochana Schemes, Bhaghyalakshmi schemes are undertaken.
Year 2001 was declared as the year of women empowerment.
Self help institutions such as Stree Shakthi, Swayam Siddha are opened.
6) What were the obstacles to achieve welfare of children? What measures has been taken to achieve child welfare?
The obstacles to achieve welfare of children are: 1. Poverty. 2. Malnutrition 3. Illiteracy.
4. Ill-treatment 5. Over population. 6. Mortality state of children is higher in olden days due to lack of nutritious food and medical facilities.
The measures taken to achieve child welfare are:-
• In 1989 UNO general assembly adopted certain rights as child rights.
• 35 projects are undertaken for the welfare of children to provide nutrious food, inoculation, health checkup, pre-school education etc.
• Various agencies and government started Balawadi, anganavadi, balakikasa, Kendra etc.
• In 1955 national children board is opened for the welfare of children.
• November 14th, the birthday of Nehru is observed as Children’s day.
• Child labour prohibition act is enforced.
• Free and compulsory primary education is providing to the age 6 to 14.
7) What is profiteering? What illegal methods are following to get more profit? What measures has been taken by the government to check profiteering?
‘Profiteering’ is an illegal method to earn more profit.
Adulteration, abnormal rates, false weight and measurement, creating artificial scarcity are the illegal methods following to get more profit.
To check profiteering following measures are undertaken by the government.
a) Public distribution system has been introduced to supply essential commodities in fair prices.
b) Essential commodities act has been passed to check profiteering.
c) ‘ISI’ mark for industrial goods, ‘AGMARK” for agricultural products has been introduced to ensure the quality.
d) A law is passed to print the quality, quantity, date of manufacture and expiry date on every industrial goods.
e) Co-operative societies, Janatha Bazaars, Super Bazaars and APMCs are opened to supply essential commodities in fair price.
f) Consumer Protection Act has been passed to protect the interest of consumers in 1986.
g) Informal rationing system also started.
h) Creating awareness through mass Medias.
8) What is smuggling? What measures has been taken by the government to check smuggling?
Importing or exporting goods from foreign countries without paying taxes or getting permission from the government is called smuggling.
Measures taken to check smuggling:-
Custom officers are appointed at airport to check smuggling.
Coastal guards are appointed along the coast to check smuggling.
COFEPOSA) Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act) has been passed its check smuggling.
9) What is poverty? What measures have been taken by the governments to achieve economic equality?
Poverty is a state of a person who is not in economic conditions to fulfill basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter to his family.
The measures taken to check poverty are:-
• Government introduced employment guarantee schemes to provide employment opportunities.
• Land reforms act is introduced to make the tiller the owner of the land.
• In order to avoid regional imbalance government is encouraging to open industries in different parts of the country by providing subsidies and privileges.
• Small scale and Cottage industries are encouraged to provide employment opportunities.
• Minimum wages are fixed to check the expositions of the workers and passed many other laws to protect the interest of the labours.
• Encouraging self-employment by providing training and other facilities.
• NREP, Jawahar Rojakar Yojana, Grammeena Sadak Yojana etc are started to provide employment.
• Loans are providing to small farmers.
• Rural women and children welfare Programme is in operation.
10) What measures has been taken by governments for the development of education under 9th five year plan?
• Various community programmes are undertaken to create awareness among the communities and parents about adult education.
• Under the provisions of 73rd and 74th amendments of our constitutions public communities are involved in providing education.
• Monetary incentives and improved basic facilities are providing.
• DPEP (District Primary Education Programmes) and operation black board programmes are undertaken.
CIVICS – 2
INDIA AND THE WORLD UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION.
1. What are the aims of UNO?
o To maintain International peace and security.
o To develop friendly relations on the basis of equality among all the nations of the world.
o To achieve International Co-operation in solving problems of economic, social and cultural matters and humanitarian character and finding solutions to various problems.
o To encourage and secure, Human and Fundamental rights and freedom.
2) What are the functions of General assembly?
• It discusses all the matters which comes under discussion on world’s issues and takes decision on 2/3 of majority presenting at voting.
• It prepares Annual Budget and approves it.
• It decides its contribution of members’ nations.
• It elects 10 members temporary to the Security Council.
• It elects it Secretary-General.
• It elects 54 members to Economic and Social Council
• It elects 3 members for Trusteeships council.
• It participates in the elections of Judges to the International Court of Justice.
3) What are the functions of Security Council?
It has power to admit or reject the membership of a new nation to General Assembly.
It suggests the name of Secretary General of UNO.
It participates in its elections of the Judges of International Council of Justice.
To protect peace ad security in the world.
The permanent member of Security Council has VETO power.
It is single negative vote which check the proposal being passed.
4) Where is the headquarters of FAO? What are its functions?
The headquarters of FAO is at Rome. Its functions are: -
• To encourage food production by promoting improved conditions for cultivation.
• To encourage the consumption of nutrious food.
• To protect Natural resource and improved agriculture.
• Improving living conditions of the rural people.
5) What are the achievements of WHO?
1) Elimination of small pox from the world. 2) It started battle against population explosion 3) Production of environment 4) Maintenance of ecological balance 5) Taken steps to fight against AIDS. 6) Fight against epidemic like cholera, plaque, malaria etc.
6) What are the aims of UNESCO?
To establish peace in the world. 2. To make human as the center of development. 3. Promoting of human rights.
4.Utilizing science and technology only for the development of human life. 5. Promotion of education. 6.To maintain balance between human and environment 7.Educating the mass against the growth of population. 8.Promoting information technology.
Promoting creative mental and cultural environment to promote peace and prosperity of the world.
7. How is UNICEF achieving the welfare of Children? Where is its head quartors?
• It provides milk & mind day meals to children in developing countries
• It provide help to female during their pregnancy
• Prevention of immoral trafficking of children
• Humanitarian servers are providing its H.Q is at New york
8. What are the aims of IMF or how is IMF safeguarding its economic interest of number nations? Where is its H.Q?
The head Quarters of IHF is at Washington D.C. its functions
• To give advice on various International Economic problems.
• To maintain balance in word trade
• To proved more employmental opportunity in all countries
• To maintain stability in exchange rates of variation currency
• To promote world trade to increase the income of nation
• To promote economic stability in its entire nation through economic Co- operation.
9. How is IBRD working for its development of underdeveloping contries
• It help to promote progress through economic reconstruction
• It maintains balance in world Trade by providing capital
• It provides loans to various developments Programme.
• It provides grantees to private industries to borrow loans
• It provider long term loan to increase employment head quarters is at washing ton D.C
10. Explain the political achievement of UNO?
• Its stopped war between Russia and Iron in 1946
• It helped Indonesia to get independence
• It prevented it civil war in Greece.
• It prevented Arab invasion on Israel in 1948
• It solved it Korean problems by providing independence to South Korea.
• It solved it Suez canal crises in 1936
• It include it Vietnam crises
• It solved Congo problem in 1960
• It Unclear way – fair and stopped the war between India & Pakistan on Kashmir crisis
• It freed Kuwait from Iraqi invasion during in 1991
• It helped Namibia & Angola to get independence
• Its Notable achievement of it WNO is it successfully checked the III world war.
11. Which are the problems which are not solved by the UNO?
• It failed to solve the problems b/w the Hungary and Poland in 1956
• It failed to solve the conflict between Palestine and Israel.
12. What is the racial problem of Srilanka? What are the Measure takes by India to solve this problem?
There are two prominent groups in Srilanka one is the Sinhalese (Majorities) and the other the Tamils (Minorities) the claim of the Tamils for a separate state led to civil war.
In 1988 a treaty was concluded between Jayewardene and Rajeev Gandhi and a peace keeping force was dispatched. Accordingly to this concluded IPKF was sent to Srilanka to check the Violence of L.T.T.E.
13 What are the problem that India is facing with Pakistan?
India is having the following problem with Pakistan.
• Kashmir Issue has become the biggest problem between these to countries
• Disputes over Issues like property. Border. Distributions of river water Trades etc.
• Cross border terrorism.
• Relation of China with Pak.
• Continuing problem of minarets in both countries
INDIA AND WORLD PROBLEMS
Two marks questions.
1. Which are the problems of the world?
1. The problems of Human rights 2. Terrorism 3. Apartheid 4. Use of dangerous Weapons 5. Economic Inequality
2. What is meant by Human rights? When did UNO proclaim Human rights?
Human rights are certain rights which are essential for peaceful existence and development of individual on December 10.1948 (essential)
3. What is meant by racial discrimination? Who was the first person to condemned racial discrimination?
Discriminating to people on the basis of race is kwon as racial discrimination.
4. How was recial discrimination practiced in America?
• Blacks were not given right to vote
• They were forced to live in particular limited areas
5. Mention the disarmament agreement?
* The disarmament agreements are:
• Disarmament treaty, 1955.
• Nuclear Test Ban Treaty [MTBT], 1963.
• Space Treaty, 1967.
• Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, 1970.
• Biological weapon convention, 1975.
• Inter-Continental ballistic missiles treaty, 1988.
• Comprehensive test ban treaty [CTBT].
6. What is neo-colonism? What are its terms?
* For economical development of the under developed nations, many developed nations came forward to provide capital & te4chnologh on some conditions. This is called Neo-colonism. Terms are:-
1. Aid receiving countries should keep their door open to invest surplus capital by aid giving countries.
2. Aid receiving countries should supply raw materials to the giving countries and should get finished goods from there.
7. What are the functions of Common Wealth of Nations? When was Common Wealth of Nations Organized? Who are its members?
* The functions of Common Wealth of Nations are to:
• Protect mutual interest in trade, commerce, education and cultured.
• To provide financial ride.
• Sharing of technology information, T.V, Radio, Sports, Health.
• Conducting Common Wealth Games.
• It was Organized in the year 1931.
• The countries which were the colonies of Britain formed this Union. Even after independence they continued to be in Common Wealth of Nations.
8. What are the aims of ASEAN?
* They main aims include:
1. To establish peace in South-East Asia.
2. To develop socio-economic co- operations
3. Improve education, technology and science by importing training in field of research.
4. Mutual exchange and help in mothers concerning industry and agriculture.
5. Work with co-ordination in other matters of international forum.
9. Mention the member nations of SAARC? Where is It’s head quarters?
* The member nation of SAARC are:
-India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Pakistan, Malaysia, Bangladesh.
The head quarter is at Katmandu, Capital of Nepal.
10. Mention the aims of SAARC?
* The aims of Saarc is to identify the problems in mutual relations and find solution through co- operation in fields of
Agriculture, health, rural development, science & technology, and Transport.
11. What does the third World refers to? Who introduced the name?
* The third world refers to the under developed countries which wanted to develop economic through mutual co-operation & exchange, without joining any power blocks or depending on developed countries.
The world was introduced by Algerian fanon.
12. What is international economic order?
* It is a new method of achieving economically development of under developed nation through co-operation and exchange, without depending on any power blocks.
13. What is “arm race”? What are its effects?
* When the cold war intensified often 2nd world war, two power blocks increased hatred & insecurity. So they stared pilling up deadly weapons of mass destruction called “Arm race”.
It increased hatred, tension & insecurity.
So disarmament treaty was sighed.
14. What is Indian’s stand on uses of atomic power?
* India upholds the principle of ‘atomic for peace’ and wants to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
15. Mention event which supported to declare Human rights?
* The two events that supported to declare Human rights are;-
-American war of Independence in 1776.
-French revolution in 1789.
01. Our Resources.
1. Which regions are potential to generate hydro-electricity? Why?
1. Along the Himalaya from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.
2. Western ghats.
Because (1)no. of perenicl rivers flows along the slopes of Himalaya.(2)Western ghats receives very heavy rainfall and it has steep slopes.
2. What measures have to be taken by India to improve fisheries?
India needs (1) Big mechanized fishing boats.(2)Improved landing and berthing facilities.(3)Cold storage and processing facilities.
3. Which factor promotes fishing in India?
(1) India is surrounded by water boats on rivers sides. (2) It has wide continental shelf. (3) Active ocean current. (4)Deposition of sediments by rivers.
Three mark Questions.
4. What are the uses of water? Or Water is an Important Natural resource how?
water is an important natural resource. It is one of the basic needs of human and considered as the wealth of a nation because.
1. Water in needed for irrigation. 2. Generation for power. 3. Industries. 4. Domestics use.5. Navigation.
6. Fisheries. 7. Recreational purposes.
5. What is irrigation? What are major types of irrigation?
Supplying water artificially for agriculture is called Irrigation -
1. Well irrigation. 2. Tank irrigation. 3. Canal irrigation.
6. Which are the two types of wells? What is their use?
They are.: Open wells and Tube wells.
• This system of irrigation can be adopted even in areas where rainfall is scanty.
• For the construction of wells, huge capital and Technology are not required.
• Irrigation is possible throughout the year.
• For small landholders, this type of irrigation is easily accessible.
7. What is Tank irrigation? What are the problems of Tank irrigation?
Bunds are constructed across small streams, Water is stored and supplied to agriculture through small canals is called Tank irrigation.
1. Tank mostly depend on rain water.
2. They dry up during summer season. When the formers requires water.
3. Silt accumulates in tanks.
8. Which state has the largest net work of Canal irrigation in India?
There are two types of Canals.
They are 1. Non-Perennial Canals. 2. Perennial Canals.
* Non-Perennial Canals: Canals taken out directly from the rivers are called non-perennial.
* perennial Canals: Dams are constructed across the rivers. The water is stored in reservoirs and provided for agriculture through canals “Uttar Pradesh”
9. What are the main purposes of multipurpose river valley projects?
• They provide water for irrigation.
• They help to generate hydro-electric power.
• They control floods.
• They; prevent soil erosion.
• They help to develop inland fisheries.
• They provide inland navigation.
• They provide water for industries.
• They provide recreational facilities and water for domestic use.
• They also help afforestration.
10. Which river is called the ‘Sorrow of Bengal’? Where are the Damodar dams constructed?
* Damodar is called the “Sorrow of Bengal”. Tilaya, Konar, Maithon and Panchel hill.
11. What are the classifications of land use in India?
1. Land under cultivation. 2. Forests. 3. Land not available for cultivation.
4. Fallow land. 5. Other uncultivated land.
12. What are the classifications of soils in India?
1. Alluvial soil. 2. Black soil (Regur soil). 3. Red soil. 4. Laterile soil. 5. Desert soil. 6.Mountain soil.
13. What is meant by Alluvial soil? What are the divisions of Alluvial soil?
* Alluvial is the soil brought down by the rivers from the mountains and deposited in the plains and deltas.
There are two divisions of Alluvial soil.
They are: Bhangar soil: It is older soil, Khadar soil: It is younger soil.
Alluvial soil is suitable for ‘Jute’, wheat, rice, sugar cane, cotton.
14. How is Black soil formed? What are the crops grown in Black soil?
* Black soil (Regur soil) is formed from the disintegration of volcanic rocks.
Black soil suitable for dry farming, cotton, wheat, jowar, onions, chilies, tobacco, Oil seeds, lemons and grapes.
15. What are the problems of population growth?
1. Unemployment problem. 2. Housing problem. 3. Lack of food and malnutrition. 4. Slow economic progress.
5. Environmental pollution. 6. Political and social problems.
16. How is productivity of population decided?
* Productivity of population is decided by their skills.
1. Scientific and technological development. 2. Managerial abilities. 3. Cultural values. 4. Political and social organizations. 5. Educations. 6. Health and physical power.
17. Which are the five departments of the H.R.D? When was it formed?
Five departments: 1. Education. 2. Culture. 3. Arts 4. Youth welfare and sports. 5.Women’s welfare.
18. Which are the most important multi-purpose river valley project in India?
1. Damodar river valley project. 2. Bhakra-Nangal project. 3. Kosi project. 4. The Hirakud project.
5. Tungabhadra project. 6. Nagarjuna sagar project. 7. Chambal project. 8. Upper Krishna project.
9. Narmada River valley project.
Three mark questions
1. What is Agriculture? What are the important types of agriculture practiced in India?
* Agriculture means ploughing of the land, Sowing seeds, Protection plants and obtaining crops for the use of people and domestic animals.
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
1. Subsistence farming. 2. Commercial farming. 3. Mixed farming. 4. Plantation farming.
2. What are the characteristics of Primitive Subsistence farming? What are its types?
Characteristics: 1. Small size of land holding. 2. Use of ancient and simple implements.
3. Unscientific methods of cultivation.
Types: 1. Shifting cultivation. 2. Sedentary cultivation.
3. What is shifting cultivation? What are their names in various states?
After cultivating the crops for a few years. The land loses its fertility and the people shift to some other place to practice agriculture is known as shifting cultivation.
Kumari in Karnataka, Thuming in Assam, Ponama in Kerala. Podu in Andhra Pradesh.
4. What is mixed farming? What are its characteristics?
Raising of crops and rearing of cattle, Poultry, bee keeping, sericulture Etc. on the same land.
1. Growing of a wide variety of crops. 2. Use of scientific methods of agriculture.
3. Requirement of sufficient capital.
5. What are the conditions required for paddy cultivation? Which is the largest paddy growing state in India?
It requires 250 c temperature and 100 to 200cm of rainfall, alluvial and clayey soil.
‘West Bengal’ is the largest paddy growing state in India.
6. What are the conditions necessary for wheat cultivation? Which is the wheat granary of India?
It requires 100 c to 150 c temperature, and 50 to 70 cm of rainfall.
“Punjab” is called the wheat granary of India.
7. What are the conditions required for to grow Coffee and Tea? Which are the highest producing state of Coffee and Tea?
*Both Coffee and Tea require hot and humid climate with 150 c to 300c temperature.
Coffee : 1. It requires 150 to 200 cm of rainfall 2. Water must be drained out.
3. Shade of trees…..Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala.
Tea : 1. It requires 200 to 250cm of rainfall and shade of trees are not required
2. Well drained fertile soil, rich inorganic mater.
3. Rainfall should be evenly distributed through out the year.
“Assam” West Bengal, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka.
8. Which are the factors require for cotton cultivation? Which are the largest producer states?
1. 200 c to 250 c temperature and 2. 75 to 100 cm of annual rainfall
2. Alluvial, red and block soil which are well drained.
Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andrapradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajastan, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.
9. Which are the factors require for Jute cultivation? Which are the Jute produces state?
It requires warm and humid climate with 250 c to 350c temperature, and more than 150cm of rainfall. It is best grown in light sandy deltaic soil. It requires a large quantity of water and a large supply of cheap labour.
West Bengal, Assam, Uttar Pradesh Orissa, Tripura.
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES
2 Mark questions
1. Which states have the largest Iron ore deposits in India?
Jharkhand……….The richest iron ore belt is the ‘u’ shaped range from Singhbhum district in Jharkhand.
Orissa…………….In Keonghar, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts.
Chhattisgarh……..Raipur, Durg and Bastar districts.
Karnataka………..Kemmangundi in Chikkamagalore (D)
Hospet and Sandur in Bellary (D)
Goa, Andrapradesh and Tamilnadu.
TYPES OF IRON ORE – 1. Hematite 2. Magnetite
2. What are the uses of Manganese ore? Name the types of manganese ores?
1. It is smelted with Iron ore to produce steel.
2. It is used in chemical, electrical industries.
3. In the production of varnishes.
Manganese 1. Pyrolusite. 2.Psilimelane.
3. Which are the Bauxite ore producing states of India? Which are the countries imports Bauxite from India? Meghalaya, Orissa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andrapradesh.
The other countries that import Bauxite from India are 1) Britain 2) Germany and 3) Italy
4. What are the uses of copper?
1. It is used in electrical Industry. 2. Household utensils
India import Copper from U.S.A, Canada, Zambia, Japan and East Africa.
5. What are the kinds of Coal? Where is the Coal fields distributed in India?
There are two kinds of Coal.
They are 1. Anthracite. 2. Bituminous.
Damodar river valley, Tharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
In Chhattisgarh………. Tharia, Bokaro, Giridih and karanpura, Ranighanj.
6. What are the important petroleum available areas in India?
1. Assam …… Digbai, Ladhimpur, Nagaregion, Rudrasagar, Lakwa.
2. Gujarat…… Ankaleshwar 3. Bombayhigh.
7. Name the nuclear power plants in India?
1. Tarapur in Maharashtra. 5. Ranapratap sagar in Rajasthan.
2. Kalapakam in Tamilnadu. 6. Narora in Uttar Pradesh.
3. Surat (Kakrapur) in Gujarat. 7. Kaiga in Karnataka.
4. Srishailam in Andrapradesh.
Uranium, Thorium, Plutonium and Berillium are the important minerals used for the production of atomic energy.
8. Which are the Non-Conventional sources of energy?
1. Solar energy……………Baramar in Rajastan.
2. Wind energy……………Kanyakumari in T.N.(wind energy Technological station)
3. Bio gas…………………
4. Tidal energy…………...Sundarbans in W.B
5. Geo Thermal energy…..Himachal Pradesh.
9. At present, for what purpose solar energy is used? Where is its special research centre in India?
1. Solar energy is used as a source of electricity in village.
2. It is used in railway signals.
3. Lift irrigation and for communication media, solar cookers and solar heaters Etc .At ‘Gurgaon’ near Delhi.
10. Which metal is known as wonder metal? Why?
Aluminum It is light, low priced, resistant to corrosion.
11. What is coal known as? Why?
Black Diamond, It is an allotropic form of carbon like diamond and very hard and useful.
12. Which is known as liquid gold? Why?
Petroleum, it is more valued and useful like gold.
13. What are the special qualities of Mica?
1. Insulation. 2. Elasticity.
1. What is manufacturing Industries? What are their classifications?
Industries which are concerned the conversion of raw materials into finished products are called manufacturing Industries.
1. Manufacture Industries or Heavy and light Industries. 2. Small scale and cottage Industries.
2. What are the facilities available for Industrial development in India?
1. Availability of natural resources. 2. It has large human resources.
3. Indian agriculture provides raw materials for Industries. 4. It provides good market for Industrial products.
3. Which were the important Industries in Ancient time in India?
1. The muslin cloth of Dacca 2. Chintzes of Machalipatanam.
3. Calicos of Calicut (Kazhikode). 4. Gold embroidery of Surat.
4. Name the Industrial regions of India?
1. West Bengal.Chattisgarh.Jharkhand 2.Gujarat region. 3.South India. 4.Central Gangetic plane.
5. Name the Agro-based Industries?
1. Cotton textiles. 2. Jute Industries. 3. Sugar Industries. 4. Paper Industries.
6. Which are the two types of Manufacturing Industries?
1. Agro-based Industries. 2. Mineral based Industries.
7. What are the raw materials and Chemical required for paper Industry?
The raw materials required for paper Industry are: Soft wood, Bamboo, Sabai grass, Straw, Bagasse, Soft water Etc.,,,
Chemicals: - Costic soda, Soda ash, Sodium sulphate, Chlorine, Sulphuric acid.
Waste water rags Etc.,,,,
8. Name the important paper mill centers in India?
Kolkata, Tilagarh, Raniganj, Kakinada.
In Karnataka: - Dandeli, Bhadravathi, Mandya.
9. mantion the Iron and steel Industries established before Indian Independence in India?
• Tata Iron and steel company at Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. (TISCO).
• Indian Iron and steel company at Burnapur in West Bengal. (IISO).
• Mysore Iron and steel company at Bhadravathi in Karnataka.
(Vishveswarayya Iron and steel company) (MISCO).
10. Name the iron and steel Industries which were established during the Second five year plan period?
At Bhilai in Chattisgarh.
Rourkela in Orissa.
Durgapur in West Bengal.
11. Which are the three iron and steel industries which were proposed to start during the Fourth five year plan?
Salem in Tamilnadu.
Vijayanagar in Karnataka.
Vishakapattanam in Andrapradesh.
12. Which are the raw materials required for Chemical fertilizer Industry?
• The Bi-Production of coal & oil refineries are used as raw materials in this industry.
13. Which are the raw materials required in Cement Industries?
Limestone, Coal and gypsum are.
14. Which are the main Products of Jute?
Gunny bags, Jute cloth, Tarpaulins, ropes and cordages Etc.,
15. Name the countries which are importing Sugar/Jute from India?
Sugar: - 1. U.S.A. 2. Britain. 3. Iran. 4. Malaysia. 5. Canada.
Jute: - 1. Britain. 2. Canada. 3. Argentina. 4. U.S.A.
16. Which city is known as Manchester of India and (Cotton optics)? Why?
Mumbai, Cotton textile mills are concerted in Mumbai like Manchester in England.
17. Which district is known as Jawa of India? Why?
* Gorakpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
* It has largest number of Sugar mills in India like Jawa.
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
3 and 4 marks questions.
1. Agriculture is the backbone of our country. How?
• Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of India.
58% of the people depend on agriculture.
• It is the main source of national Income.
About 35% of our national Income is derived from agriculture.
• It provides food to people and fodder to animal.
• It helps to improve internal trade.
• Industries are heavily dependant on agriculture for raw materials.
• It requires less capital and gives more output.
• It is a source of foreign exchange.
• It helps in the development of the tertiary sector.
Eg:- Transport and communication.Banks, Science and Technology, Health and Education.
• It encouraged Industries by providing raw material.
• It helps better distribution of Income and wealth.
2. What are the causes for backwardness of Indian agriculture?
• Vagaries of the monsoons:-
Agriculture greatly depends upon the monsoons. The monsoons are uncertain, seasonal and unevenly distributed.
• Sub-division and fragmentation of land holdings:-
According to the law of inheritance, All the land holdings of a former are divided among all his successors.
• Soil erosion:-
The top layer of the fertile soil is washed away every year by floods. It causes low yielding.
• Old and Primitive methods of Cultivation:-
Our formers still follow primitive methods of cultivation and old types of implements.
• Illiteracy and Conservative attitude of formers:-
• Land Ownership problems:-
Many of our farmers are still tenants of the land owned by landlords.
• The problems of agricultural labour:-
Our agriculture laborers are unskilled and weak. They can not put in hard work.
• Defective agricultural marketing.
They do not have proper marketing facilities for their produce. They get low price lack of proper storage facilities.
• Rural Indebtedness:
Our farmers borrow money for various purposes and can not repay it. Our formers are born in debt, live in debt and die in debt.
3. What are the steps taken by the Government to improve irrigation?
• During first year plans (1951-56) many multipurpose river valley projects were constructed.
• Desalting of tanks is being carried out regularly.
• Government advanced loans to our farmers to improve irrigation.
• A great plan is under consideration to connect th3e Ganga-Kaveri Rivers.
4. What are the steps taken by the Government to improve agriculture in India?
* Many steps taken by the government to improve agriculture are as follows.
To over come problem of uncertain monsoon problem irrigation facilities are necessary that’s why many multi-purpose river valley projects were constructed to benefit agriculture.
• Consolidation of holdings:-
To over come problem small holdings consolidation of holdings is being adopted either by exchange or by purchase of land. Medium term and long term loans from Land Development Bank or Apex Bank.
• Soil Conservation:- Some of the measure undertaken to prevent soil.
Contour Ploughing, Afforestration, Construction of bunds, Crop rotation,
Soil testing centers are opened in every taluk and Indian soil conservation Board has been set up to prevent soil.
• Modernization of agriculture:-
*Zamindari system is abolished. *Absentee land lordism is abolished. *Ceiling of the land holdings is fixed. *Contour ploughing is adopted. *Dry farming techniques are adopted. *The use of machinery and implements. *Right use of irrigation. *Use of hybrid seeds. * Use of pesticides.
*Sprinkler and drip irrigation facilities are developed.
• Scientific farming:-
*Soil conservation. *Irrigation. *Use of Chemical fertilizers. *Use of pesticides for plant protection. *Use of high yielding variety of seeds. *Mechanization of agriculture.
*Adoption of sprinkler and drip irrigation.
1. Abolition of Zamindari system. 2. Tenancy reforms. 3.Creation of land holdings.
4. Progress of Co-operative farming.
Agricultural labour and its welfare:-
1. Abolition of bonded labour. 2. Fixation of minimum wages. 3. Creation of employment opportunities.
4. Twenty Point Programme.
To overcome the defective agricultural Marketing system. Many remedical measures are undertaken.
1. Establishment of Regulated markets. 2. Setting up of Co-operative Marketing Societies.
3. Food Corporation of India was started. 4. Crop insurance. 5. Expansion of warehousing facilities.
5) What are the measures undertaken to modernize agriculture in India?
Zaamindari system and absentee land lordism have been abolished to make the tiller the owner of the land.
Contour ploughing is adopted:- The ploughing of the land is carried on across the slopes, to check loss of water and soil erosion.
The use of Machinery and implements.
Package Programme is adopted:- Intensive farming has been encouraged by providing all facilities to farmers maximize production.
To encourage the farmers to grow more, our government offers support price for some agricultural products.
Sprinkler and drip irrigation facilities are developed.
It encouraged the consolidation of holdings.
It fixed the ceiling on land holdings.
It has started ‘The Indian Council of Agriculture and Research, Agricultural University and the National Seed Corporation to encourage research.
6) What are the measures taken by the Indian Government to achieve improve land reforms?
Zaamindari system has been abolished to make the tiller the owner of the land.
The ceiling on land holiday is fixed.
Laws were passed to confirm the ownership of the tiller.
Creations of economic holdings.
Progress of Co-operative forming.
7) What are the measures taken to improve the conditions of ‘Agricultural laborers’?
Abolition of bonded labour:-
In 1976 bonded labour system was abolished. Whoever practices this system is liable for punishment.
Fixation of minimum wages:-
Minimum wages Acts have been passed and minimum wages are fixed.
Creation of employment opportunities:-
Agricultural work is seasonal. To provide work to farm workers throughout the year.
20 Point Programme was introduced in 1975.
8) Name the Programmes under 20 Point Programme:-
20 Point program was introduced in 1975, but it was revised in 1982.
Free house sites to the weaker sections of the society.
Distribution of surplus lands among the landless workers.
Ban on recovery of debt from landless labourers.
Providing loans at low rate of interest by Nationalized Banks.
Starting of industries in rural areas to provide work.
9) How is defective marketing system exploits the farmers?
High trade commission.
Cheating in weights and measures.
Not settling the amount immediately after the sale is over.
No information with regard to whom and at what price the goods are sold.
10) What are the measures undertaken by the government to improve agricultural marketing system?
Many measures are undertaken to improve agricultural marketing system.
Establishment of regulated markets.
Setting up of Co-operative Marketing Societies.
Grading and standardization of agricultural products.
Expansion of warehousing facilities.
Use of cold storage facilities.
11) How do Co-operatives marketing societies help the farmers?
They help to get better prices and eliminate the exploitation by the middlemen.
They provide Warehousing and cold storage facilities.
They undertake the processing of agricultural products.
They supply fertilizers, pesticides and implements.
12) What are the main functions of Regulated Market Committees?
The main functions of Regulated Market Committees are:-
To ensure correct weights and measures.
To issue license to the traders.
To provide warehousing facilities.
To provide Market information about the prevailing market prices.
To decide the Prices openly through auction.
To cancel the license issued to traders.
COTTAGE AND SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES:-
4 Mark Questions:-
1) How are small scale and cottage industries helpful for the economic development of India? Explain.
They provide employment to a large number of unemployed and under-employed people from rural.
They help to solve rural unemployment problems.
They provide alternative jobs to rural masses.
They do not require huge capital.
They can start with indigenous resources.
They help for the utilization for hidden talents.
They do not require huge power supply.
They provide self employment.
They are the feeders to large scale industries.
They help to improve the standard of living of the people.
There were no strikes and lockouts.
They help in fair distribution of wealth.
They help in decentralization of industries.
They prevent air and other type of pollutions.
2) What are the problems of cottage and small scale industries?
The problems of cottage and small scale industries are as follows:-
Inadequate supply of raw materials:- Industries do not get adequate supply of raw materials regularly at reasonable prices.
Lack of suitable machines:- The machines and tools are costly and the people are unable to buy them.
Irregular supply of electricity:- Small-scale industries require regular supply of electricity, but the face the problem of shortage of power and frequent power cut
Old and out dated techniques: - They produce low quality and sub-standard goods.
Lack of adequate finance: - They don not have proper sources of finance and they don’t have proper knowledge about the sources of capital.
Poor marketing conditions:- They don’t have proper marketing facilities and do not get proper prices. So they are cheated by the middlemen.
Competitions from large scale industries:- Many goods that are produced in cottage and small-scale industries are also produced in manufacturing industries. These industries cannot escape from the competition from large scale industries.
3) What are the measures taken to improve cottage and small scale industries?
Central small industries organization: Aim: To provide guidance to small producers and craftsmen.
National small industries Corporation: Aim: To provide assistance for the organization industrial estates to house small-scale industries.
All India Boards:-
1.It has started many boards. 2. Khadi and Village industries board. 3. Cottage Industries Board. 4. Small Industries Board. 5. Silk Board. 6. All India Coir Board etc.
State aids to industries act provide midterm loans at low rate of interest.
State Finance Corporation provides medium term loans to small producers.
National small scale Industries Corporation enables to purchase machinery.
Nationalized banks also advance money to small producers.
Industrial development bank of India provide loans.
Industrial co-operative societies organized in villages.
To provide technical help to small scale and cottage industries.
It has setup central small industries- organization industries Design centers.
The small inventions development Board.
To provide appropriate Technology to small industries.
Training to workers:-
Government has set up a number of productions –cum-training centers and mobile vans to give training to workers.
Establishment of Industrial Estates:
They provide the infrastructure and other facilities like buildings, roads, water supply, and electricity.
The Government has established “National Small scale industries corporation”. It help to Market the products produced in small scale industries and many exhibitions are organizes to get demand for exports
DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN TRADE IN INDIA
2 Marks questions:-
1) What is trade? What are its classifications?
Trade refers to buying and selling of goods is known as trade.
There are two kinds of trade. They are: 1. Domestic/ Home/Internal Trade. 2. Foreign/International Trade
2) What is foreign trade? What are its classifications?
The Trade between the countries is called foreign trade.
The three types of foreign trade are: 1. Exports 2. Imports 3. Entrepot
3) List out the important imports and Exports of India
Machinery and Machinery tools
Cotton Raw jute
Chemical fertilizer Raw cotton and cotton Textiles
Iron and Manganese
4) What is Balance of Trade? Which are its kinds?
The difference between the value of visible exports and the value of visible imports of a country in a year is called Balance of Trade.
There are three kinds of Balance of Trade:
They are: 1. Favorable balance of Trade 2. Unfavorable balance of Trade. 3. Balanced Trade.
The favorable balance of Trade: It means “If the value of visible exports is more than the visible imports are called favorable balance of trade”.
The unfavorable balance of trade: It means-If the value of visible exports is less than the visible imports is called unfavorable of trade.
Balance Trade: It means-“If the value of visible exports is equal to the value of visible imports is called balance trade”.
5) What is Balance of Payment? Which are its kinds?
“The difference between total value of visible exports including invisible services & value of visible imports including invisible service of a country in a year are called Balance of Payment”.
There are three kinds of Balance of Payment.
1. Favorable Balance of Payment. 2. Unfavorable Balance of Payment. 3. Favorable Balance.
6) What is Internal Trade?
Buying and selling of goods within the boundaries of a country is called Internal Trade.
It is carried on Villages. Weekly Bazaars, Commercial Centers etc.
7) What is Entrepot Trade? Give example.
Buying goods from one country and selling the same to other countries is called Entrepot.
8) What is Informal rationing?
People have to obtain ration cards from the Government to buy goods from the “Fair Price Shops” is called Informal rationing
GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
• What were the economic problems faced by India after Independence?
1. National and Per capita income was very low. 2. Uneven distribution of Income.
3. There was acute shortage of food.
4. Industrial backwardness.
Our country was classified as underdeveloped country of agriculture.
What is economic planning?
It is a process carried out consciously and judicially for the efficient utilization of resources in order to fulfill the aims laid down by the central authority.
When was the National Planning Commission set up? Who are the Present Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Nation Planning Commission?
The National Planning Commission setup in 1950..
1.The first Chairman of NPC – Jawaharlal Nehru. 2.The Present Chairman of NPC – Dr. Manmohan Singh. 3.The Present Deputy Chairman of NPC – Montek Sing Ahluvaliya.
What were the causes for the failure of the 3rd five year plan?
1. The Chinese attacked in 1963 and war with Pakistan in 1965. 2. Failure of Monsoons.3.People also showed slackness towards agricultural growth.
What is Package Programme?
Providing all facilities required for a certain land holding and achieving maximum returns is called Package Programme. Package Programme is introduced in the fourth five year plan.
Which were the industries established during the first five year plan?
Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) at Bangalore in Karnataka.
Rail Coach Factory at Perambur near Chennai in Tamil Nadu.
Railway Engine Factory at Chitharanjan in
Fertilizer Factory at Sindhri in Jharkhand. Pencil Factory at Pipri near Pune in Maharastra. Telephone industry in Bangalore.
Newsprint factory in Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh.
Ship building yard at Vishkapattnam in Andrapradesh. Bharat Electronics at Bangalore.
Which were the National Development programmes started during the first five year plan?
1. National Extension Service Programme. 2.Community Development Programmes.
What were the aims of Sixth Five Year plan?
It aimed at the removal of poverty. 2.It aimed at providing social justice. 3.It had to provide primary 4.Education and housing facilities. 5.Drinking water facility was to provide to thousands of villages. 6.To improve the living conditions of slum dwellers.
The expectation of the improved and death rate declined.
What is Green Revolution? When was it started ?
It refers to quick and uptrend change in the agriculture. production.
It was started during annual plan and continued in fourth five year plan (1969-1974).
What is welfare state?
It means ensuring the welfare of all the citizens by providing social & economic services through the Government.